Wednesday, September 19, 2007

Saturn's Titan A Peek into Earth Early History

Saturn,the second-largest planet in our solar system,is well known for its dramatic ring system.It is the farthest planet anyone can see with the bare oculus in Earth's nighttime sky.

In 1997,the Cassini-Huygens missionary post began its seven-year voyage to Saturn.The mission's aim was to garner as much information as it could about this gas giant and its ambiance as well as its many moons,especially Titan,the biggest moon in our solar doing this,the men of science trust to derive more than information about how planet form,the beginnings of organic substance in our solar system,and perhaps even about the early old age of Earth.

Cassini-Huygens entered Saturn's celestial orbit in july 2004 and began sending emages and information back to earth.On December 24,2004,the cassini satellite ejected the Christiaan Christiaan Huygens probe,which then began a 20-day coast toward Titan.In January 2005,Huygens finally entered Titan's ambiance and,using highly sophisticated instruments,began collecting a nimiety of information about the moon's ambiance and its terrain.

Why Titan?

Cosidering that Saturn have at least 35 known moons,why the involvement in Colossus in particular? Atmosphere,not size,was the paramount consideration oin the scientist'choice to analyze Colossus first.

Titan is the lone mooon in the solar system with its ain atmosphere.Scientist believe this thick atmosphere(thicker even than Earth's)resembles Earth's ain ambiance 3.8 billion old age ago before aboriginal life began.Thus,studying Colossus may assist addition our apprehension of Earth's early history and offering us all a peep into our past.

What Christiaan Christiaan Huygens Found

When it plunged into Titan's thick orange haze,the information and mental images Huygens direct back revealed that...

1.)There are no primodial solid gases on Titan.If there had been,this would have got meant that Titan's ambiance did not change at all from the clip it was defined up to today.But this is not the case.The N on Colossus formed from ammonia,which is believed to be the same manner that N formed on Earth.

2.)Titan's ambiance dwells primarily of methane and nitrogen.Methane,the 2nd most abundant gas on Titan,control's Titan's weather forecasting in the same manner that H2O controls Earth's.The liquid methane on Titan's surface stuff evaporates into the at mosphere,forms clouds,and rainfalls back down to finish the cycle.In other words,it rainfalls methane on Titan.Where makes titaniums methane come up from?Scientist believe that Colossus is geologically active and incorporates a huge resistance reservoir of C from which methane if formed.

3.)Titan's ambiance have assorted composite hydrocarbons(organic chemical compound like methane that incorporate C and hydrogen).Scientist believe that chemical reactions by hydrocarbons gave rise to life on Earth.This is why they see Titan's ambiance as a clip machine to the early years of Earth.Spectrometer data,however,provide no indicant of life on Titan.

Tobias Owen,an uranologist from the University of Hawaii,said that on the whole,Titan looks to be like an early World that failde to develop further,because it lacked the ingredients indispensable to life:light,heat,and water.Owen said,"Because of its immense distance from the Sun,Titan's development was frozen at a very early stage-where it will stay until the Sun develops into reddish giant star and runs it."

Sunday, September 16, 2007

Public Versus Private New Orleans Schools

Ever inquire what to make with school choice? For households who have got ample amounts of money and can afford any school, the determination about what school to direct the children to May look simple. After all, most people believe that private is best. Other parents may not be able to afford private school and have got to direct their children to public schools and maintain their fingers crossed. For still yet others, scrimping and economy to direct small Rebel and Suzie to private school is their top priority. Sure, for most private schools, there are tons of benefits: littler social class sizes, a wider array of programmes available such as as Latin or Montessori, and the quality of comforts the school have to offer (pool, track, state-of-the-art computer labs, etc…) are all examples.

But what about metropolises like New Orleans? There, they have got to reconstruct their school systems from the land up; Hurricane Katrina wiped everything out, schools included. Even if New Orleans Schools had made it through the violent storm unscathed, for a clip there were no pupils to go to them. The metropolis have a alone chance to reconstitute their full New Orleans Schools educational system; what an exciting prospect!

Dividing up the country into two districts, the public sector of New Orleans Schools is working to not only acquire schools going again, but to also do certain that they are doing it right. Feeling that this division of direction will let for more than flexibleness throughout the city, leadership are working to guarantee that all pupils who tax return to public New Orleans Schools will acquire the opportunity to go on in their educational careers. For pupils whose households are sending them to New Orleans Populace Schools, this restructuring is a beacon fire of hope. Their children may acquire the opportunity to go on learning, and they will make so in newer, safer environments. Their lives have got been torn apart by wind and rain; they've lost their places and their livelihoods. They rate the consistence that going to New Orleans Schools can, hopefully, provide.

For some families, enrolling their children in a private New Orleans Schools is the determination they've made for their students. The rebuilding of an full metropolis is a great manner for private New Orleans Schools to acquire a beachhead in the city. While the public schools must work through the bureaucratism to acquire things done, private schools must travel before their board of managers and perhaps the edifice license business office in order for alterations to occur. Definitely a shorter process, it lets for private New Orleans Schools to open up their doors to students. Not only are Christian churches and private establishments leadership of private New Orleans Schools, corps and groupings of parents are getting together to constitute charter schools. For many families, these quasi-public New Orleans Schools are the manner to go. They can take which school doctrine plant for them, which 1s they can afford to attend, and travel from there.

So, whether you take private New Orleans Schools or public ones, you and your household have got options.

Thursday, September 13, 2007

Connecting the Dots - Kids to Business

I'm all for schools and concerns working together to link the points for pupils to cognize how to vie in a planetary workforce. We make demand to work to break meld the two entities. In the Capital Of Georgia Business Chronicle, Tim Hough composes about an enterprise going on between Capital Of Georgia Populace Schools and Capital Of Georgia concerns (Atlanta Business Chronicle, June 1-7) to make just such as a thing. Beverly Hall, the superintendent, is working to fully reform the public school system to link the points in the subjects of engineering, wellness scientific disciplines and research. But I believe the focusing may be misguided.

China and Republic Of India are generating baskets-full of applied scientists and researchers. On absolute numbers, United States cannot compete. But what have United States always been good at (besides war)? Creating businesses!–tapping into our entrepreneurial spirit and paving new roads, new industries and new technologies. Who would have got imagined Google or Amazon 15 old age ago?

But are we forgetting where we came from? The Kauffman Foundation just reported that immigrant entrepreneurial activities are out tempo those of native-born Americans. While it increased for Asians and Latinos, it stayed steady for non-Latino Whites and even drop for blacks. Where are our entrepreneurs? Who will make the adjacent Microsoft?

Although I admire Hallway for her courageousness to step new ground, I wish school systems would concentrate their attending on instruction children how to run businesses, not be employed by them.

  • Kauffman Foundation Study

Tuesday, September 11, 2007

Global Education

If we could stand for the demographics of the human race into a small town of 100 people, what would it look like? If we gave that planetary small town entree to 161 billion GBS of data, what would they make with it? If six billion GBS of information were shared in electronic mail in 2006, what would it contain? Most of import of all, how is this unbelievable charge per unit of exponential function alteration be reflected in the instruction of children today? Where is the instruction really coming from, in schools, at place Oregon on-line?

A Global Village of 100 People

If we could cut down the world's population to a small town of precisely 100 people, with all existent human ratios remaining the same, the demographics would look something like this:

60 Asian

14 African

12 European

8 Latin American

5 United States American and Canadian

Out of those 100 people:

51 would be male

49 would be female

The Standards of Living:

5 people (US citizens) would command 32% or the sum wealth

80 would dwell in deficient housing

24 would not have got got got any electricity

50 would be malnourished and 1 starving

33 would be without entree to a safe H2O supply

67 are not able to read

7 people would have entree to the Internet

1 would have a college education

Information Data Explosion in the Global Village

161 billion GBS of digital information was created, captured and replicated worldwide in 2006

More than one billion MP3 information files were shared over the Internet in 2006

Almost 100 billion digital mental mental images were captured and shared using cell telephone cameras

More than 500 billion digital images will be captured by 2010

Six billion GBS of data were emailed from one individual to another in 2006 (excluding spam)

The figure of electronic mails grew three modern times faster than the figure of people emailing from 1998 to 2006

Source: IDC & EMC Corporation / The Expanding Digital Universe: Somes Prognosis of Worldwide Information Growth Through 2010

What makes this mean value to Education?

A better inquiry should be, "How should this be impacting are attending to instruction for children today?"

Did you cognize that 34 babes will be born in the adjacent 8 seconds, 5 in India, 4 in People'S Republic Of China and 1 in the US. What will the human race be like for them?

In 2006 there were over 1.3 million college alumni in the US, 3.1 million college alumni in Republic Of Republic Of India and 3.3 million college alumni in China.

How many of the college alumni in India talk English? 100%

In the adjacent 10 old age it is predicted that People'S Republic Of China will be the figure 1 English Language speech production state in the world.

The charge per unit of alteration and development is increasing at an exponential function pace. In 10 old age there will be courses of study and engineering and subjects that have got not been invented yet. Sociable and cultural barriers are colliding, collapsing, merging and at odds as rapidly as the entree to existent clip communications, and far faster than political procedural philosophy can respond. How will the adjacent coevals usage computing machines that are faster than the human brain, or capable of storing more than information than the corporate heads of the human race population? How will the adjacent coevals be prepared for entree to such as cognition in a changing world?

Do these facts involvement you? Would you like to see even more than astonishing facts?

Visit to watch the astonishing picture presentation developed by Karl Fisch, with aid from George C. Scott McLeod, designed by XPLANE.

Then take part in the planetary conversation about instruction at, Oregon novice conversations about the importance instruction in your ain community.


Words of Wisdom

"Let us believe of instruction as the agency of developing our top abilities, because in each of us there is a private hope and dreaming which, fulfilled, can be translated into benefit for everyone and greater strength for our nation."
- Toilet F. Kennedy

"The great purpose of instruction is not cognition but action."
- Victor Herbert Spencer

"Next in importance to freedom and justness is popular education, without which neither freedom nor justness can be permanently maintained."
- Jesse James Type A Garfield

"The way in which instruction starts a adult male will find his hereafter life."


John Mehrmann is a independent writer and President of Executive Blueprints Inc., Associate in Nursing organisation devoted to improving concern patterns and developing human capital.

Friday, September 7, 2007

Fun In The Classroom - How To Create Fun Days To Enhance Learning Your Classroom

Have you ever noticed how children's eyes visible light up at Christmas, their birthdays, merriment surprises or outings? That's because the interior kid wishes to observe merriment things and make joyousness in their life. The same travels for adult up children called "adults". As teachers, you convey the gleam of exhilaration into learning.

The flicker have to come up from you first! Make an ambiance of merriment and allow the trips fly into a human race where you, the staff and the pupils will desire to come up to school and fully participate.

Here are some thoughts for creating merriment days:

Mark the calendar for famed years like April Fool's Day, 15 Minutes of Fame Day, Abdomen Laugh Day, Cutesy-Wootsie Day, Halloween, etc.

Create your ain monthly or weekly merriment days. Ask the pupils and staff for suggestions

Create Pick a "queen/king for a day" with crown and ness and a particular chair. Answer each petition with "As you wish"

Initiate chapeau days, ugly necktie days, etc

Wear funky or different colored socks. Mismatch them! Instead of frock down days, frock up or frock backwards!

Dress as a fictional character in a lesson you are teaching for the day.

As always, maintain the merriment appropriate and inclusive of all cultures. A "funship" is created with all people from all walkings of life. Students will experience more than affiliated when they can associate on the degree of fun. If pupils cognize what is waiting for them in lessons filled with merriment days, they are more than willing to come up to social class and participate.

Get the principals involved and administration. They necessitate to buoy up their loading too!

Add "Funday™" to your calendar as a lasting twenty-four hours of the week. Be Creative, measure out of the box and have got "Fun" with it!

Wednesday, September 5, 2007

Auditing Process Validation


Validation is required to guarantee that a process, system, material, method, product, piece of equipment, or force practice, will ran into its intended intent and mathematical function or let operation in a reliable, consistent manner. A house deduces small benefit if a thorough apprehension of proof stays solely within the proof department.

After four decennaries of existence, proof is small better understood now than when it was first conceived—beyond the conception of "requiring a lower limit of three runs". The term "validation" may differ in significance from company to company. Validation is demonstrating and documenting that something makes (or is) what it is putative to make (or be).

Challenge of the Auditor's Role

Resources to back up proof may not be the best for adhering to conformity procedures. Start by apprehension the sop to the point to proof and, specifically, procedure validation. The auditor's function will be to analyze executed communications protocols and studies against internal sop and external regulations. In improver to the sop government Procedure Validation, the hearer necessitates to cognize if there have got been other committednesses against which a procedure proof should be checked.

• Prior internal audited account committednesses

• Customer audited account commitments

• Internal programme enterprise committednesses (e.g., GMP Program)

• FDA committednesses (filing or inspection)

When are Procedure Validations (or Revalidations) Required?

During R&D, physical and chemical public presentation features should be defined and translated into specifications, including acceptable ranges, which should be expressed in mensurable terms. The cogency of such as as specs is verified through testing and challenge during development and initial production.

Validation of such procedures necessitate not be done before the Regulatory Filing (i.e., NDA, ANDA. Validation committednesses may be included in the regulating filing. The Validation Maestro Plan should include a cyclicity (e.g., bi-annual) and stipulate revalidation when equipment, or other to the point element, changes. When Annual Procedure Reappraisal (APR) bespeaks that "drift" is occurring, revalidation must be done.

FDA Regulations for procedure controls are included in Part 211—Current Good Manufacturing Practice for Finished Pharmaceuticals , Subpart F—Production and Procedure Controls , Section 211.100 Written procedures; deviations.

In part, these ordinances necessitate written processes for production and procedure control designed to guarantee that the drug merchandises have got the identity, strength, quality, and pureness they purport or are represented to possess. These written procedures, including any changes, shall be drafted, reviewed, and approved by the appropriate organizational units of measurement and reviewed and approved by the quality control unit. Written production and procedure control processes shall be followed in the executing of the assorted production and procedure control mathematical functions and shall be documented at the clip of performance. Any divergence from the written processes shall be recorded and justified.

Validation Types

There are respective different types of proof approaches. The best is "Propsective", since it is planned for and is, therefore, most favorite by the FDA.


assesses historical performance; traditionally necessitates more than data, not permitted at some companies, but may be necessary for merchandises that have got been in production for a long clip and pre-dated current demands for validation.


gathers information as tallies are executed; less than ideal owed to deficiency of pre-planning


planned protocol, pre-validation undertakings ensured; FDA-favored

Process Validations (Process Qualifications)

Process proof is establishing documented grounds which supplies a high grade of self-assurance that a specific procedure will consistently bring forth a merchandise meeting its pre-determined specifications and quality characteristics. The purpose is to show that a procedure repeatedly outputs merchandise of acceptable quality. A lower limit of 3 consecutively successful cycles—on A given piece of equipment using a specific process—constitutes procedure and equipment validation. Not only is the procedure under scrutiny, but the piece of equipment used to present that procedure is as well. Procedure operating bounds should be tested, but not inch of failure. "Robustness" and "worst case" are common goals.

Activities that Happen in Progress of Procedure Validation

Analytical methods must be validated. Processing parametric quantities and statuses must be specified and approved. There must be an handiness of clear and elaborate sop and Manufacturing Batch direction which avoid the usage of subjective criteria and broad processing scopes (e.g., premix gently for 10 – 60 minutes).

Upstream Tasks to Minimize Variability

Check to guarantee that undertakings are completed which could add variableness to the validation, such as as:

–Employee training

–Equipment IQ, OQ, Calibration & Maintenance

–Component specifications

–Environmental demands (temperature, humidity, controlled air quality)

–Qualification of cardinal production materials

Importance of the Protocol

It is a committedness established by the political parties involved with the activity. It affects a verbal description of the activity, the projected and agreed-upon manner to accomplish that goal, the figure of tallies required to accomplish that goal, and the credence criteria. It is an Food and Drug Administration outlook that all proof communications protocols be approved before execution. Typical beginnings for blessing are the section responsible for communications communications protocol preparation, the section where the equipment will be installed and the quality group.

Protocol & Credence Criteria

Product quality properties must be elaborate in the protocol. "Acceptance Criteria" are often the constituted Merchandise Specifications. Validation should not be used to set up or optimize processing parametric quantities and specifications. Credence Criteria may be more than stringent, but should never be less demanding, than the Merchandise Specifications. Watch for subjective statements, since they cannot be validated. Example: …continue to add H2O until you have got a suitable granulation…"

Test statuses should embrace upper and less processing bounds which topographic point the most emphasis on the system. Key procedure variables should be monitored and documented. Data analysis should set up variableness of procedure parameters.

FDA's Percept of the Function of the Choice Unit

Those involved in proof must understand what duties the Food and Drug Administration throws the quality unit of measurement answerable for. Guarantee that any further demands from the quality unit of measurement have got been met by the executed validation—especially further testing, repeating questionable tests, and providing more than rationale.

FDA Regulations for sampling and testing are included Part 211—Current Good Manufacturing Practice for Finished Pharmaceuticals, Subpart F—Production and Procedure Controls, Section 211.110 Sampling and testing of in-process stuffs and drug products

In part, these ordinances necessitate that written processes shall be established and followed that depict the in-process controls, and tests, or scrutinies to be conducted on appropriate samples of in-process stuffs of each batch. Such control procedures shall be established to supervise the end merchandise and to validate the public presentation of those manufacturing processes that may be responsible for causing variableness in the features of in-process stuff and the drug product. Such control processes shall include, but are not limited to, the following, where appropriate: tablet or capsule weight variation; decomposition time; adequateness of mixing to guarantee uniformity and homogeneity; dissolving clip and rate; clarity, completeness, or pH scale of solutions.

Failure to Meet Credence Criteria

Unless the credence criteria are met, or there is a sound justification for not meeting them, the end is not achieved and the proof have failed. When communications protocol failure occurs, it is customary to carry on an investigation. The probe should: place the assignable cause, place disciplinary actions, and restart the activity. The importance of this probe and designation of disciplinary actions cannot be overstressed. If the probe makes not place an assignable cause for the failure, the proof must be restarted.

Validating a Transferred Process

In the age of multi-national corporations, it is not uncommon for an R&D unit of measurement of measurement to be located in one portion of the state (or globe) and the manufacturing unit in another. Thus, when a procedure is transferred from one topographic point to another, a figure of engineering transportation points and written documents are generated as prospective proof in order to continue with proof through the assorted stairway of merchandise development. There are many sections involved and they are usually isolated units. Confusion consequences unless communicating is good. Often, a undertaking direction squad attack will ease inclusion of all affected units of measurement and designation of all of the stairway involved.

Validation of Transferred Technology

Audit checklists can be used to guarantee that of import elements of the transferred procedure were not overlooked or misunderstood. Appropriate participants should have got approved the communications protocol and also the concluding report. If it isn't clear to the auditor, it won't be clear to FDA.

Questions Often Asked During Technology Transfer

Raw Materials

Do specs exist?

Make they do sense?

Are the diagnostic test methods reliable?

Are the specs needed?

What should be specified but isn't?

What is the beginning of natural materials?

Are there more than sources?

What is the class to be used?

Are the classes interchangeable?


Does the works have got the proper equipment?

Are the batch size and equipment matched?

Bashes an every other provider exist?

Can the equipment in the works be used—even though the rule of operation is not yet specified?

Process Parameters

Are the set points too narrow?

Are the set points too wide?

How were the set points determined?


How make I sample?

What make I sample?

Where make I sample?

Why should I sample?

How much sample should I take?

What makes the information mean value after it is obtained?

Final Product

How were the specs set?

Are the diagnostic tests reliable?